Friday, April 8, 2016

VSKYLABS Autogyro Project

The VSKYLABS Autogyro Project: 'Cricket'
Current Version: 2016-001 (for X-Plane 10.45+)

Buy now


So, I've decided to build an Autogyro in X-Plane...and I fell in love!
Although I new a lot about these flying machines, I never thought it will be so amazing flying it, controlling it, skim along the terrain for sightseeing and landing it. This flying machine provides the most fun, thrill and challenge you can squeeze from X-Plane. 

The VSKYLABS Autogyro project is definitely going to be a multi-aircraft project, with several types of Gyroplanes.

The First Autogyro to introduce in the project is a lightweight Autogyro, which is in general based on the Bensen B-8 Autogyro (as well as Nasa's X-25A Autogyro). Tail section design was modified, making the Autogyro longer, and with a Tail-wheel underneath the extended boom.


What is an Autogyro?
An autogyro features a free-spinning rotor that turns because of passage of air through it.  The downward component of the airflow through the rotor gives lift for the vehicle, and sustains the autogyro in the air. A separate propulsion unit (usually propeller driven) provides forward thrust, and can be placed in a tractor configuration with the engine and propeller at the front of the fuselage, or pusher configuration with the engine and propeller at the rear of the fuselage.

Controls of an Autogyro:
There are three primary flight controls:
  • Control stick.
  • Rudder pedals.
  • Throttle.
Typically, the control stick tilts the rotor in both axes to provide pitch and roll control, but there are Autogyros which do not tilt the rotor at all, or only doing that one dimension, Such Autogyros have conventional control surfaces. Rudder pedals provide yaw control, and the throttle controls engine power for forward thrust.

Most autogyros features a system called "pre-rotate", which when engaged drives the top rotor to start spinning before takeoff. 

Autogyros usually doesn't features Collective pitch controls, but it can be found on some Autogyro aircraft. Unlike a helicopter, common Autogyros need a runway to take off; however, they are capable of landing with a very short or zero ground roll. 

Controlling an Autogyro:

  • Pulling back on the stick tilts the rotor back, increasing lift and decreasing forward airspeed.
  • Pushing forward on the stick decreases lift and increases airspeed. 
  • The rudder pedals move the rudder on the vertical stabilizer and also control the nose gear, making it possible to steer the Autogyro on the ground, while taxiing...
  • Throttle for the engine, as in any conventional, fixed wing aircraft.

Takeoff procedure:
To take off the rotor must be pre-rotated to produce enough lift and stability during the takeoff run. Trying to lift of an Autogyro with its rotor not rotating fast enough will usually end up in a crash, or a very long runway. In small Autogyros, pre-rotation is usually done by using a small electric driven engine, but there are other methods as well (even rotation by hand). Once the rotor is up to speed, the pre-rotator must be disengaged and the Autogyro is ready for brake release and takeoff run, to be lifted by autorotation of the rotor.

Landing procedure:
When power is reduced, the forward speed decreases and the Autogyro goes into a steady descent path. The lifting force is not enough to maintain altitude, but even when the engine at Idle or even stopped, The Autogyro will descend and land safely (this aspect is an advantage over the helicopter. The helicopter's pitch angle of the rotors is ~11 degrees, and without power, Drag will quickly get them stopped, or slowed down, unless the pilot quickly reduces the pitch angle the rotor blades so that the rotor autorotates).

X-Plane Flying Instructions:

Recommended Field-Of-View setting is 65-95 Degrees:
The Autogyro is a very intuitive flying machine, with minimal cockpit. Mostly recommended is to set the Field of view to 65-95 degrees, and "feel" the Autogyro motion as you fly, especially in low-level, sight seeing flights. The actual pilot POV was set to be slightly lower to make it comfortable to see the panel while flying. NOTE: You can toggle the Field-Of-View by pressing the Smartphone screen!

Before Takeoff:
  1. Taxi slowly to the Take-off spot.
  2. Apply Brakes.
  3. Pre-rotate switch to "ON".
  4. Wait for the Rotor to rotate and stabilize. Usually it takes 10-15 seconds.
  5. You can "help" the main Rotor to reach the needed rotation speed by gently advancing the throttle to ~30%.
  6. When the RPM of the main rotor (Yellow needle in the RPM gauge) reaches ~160 RPM, it is safe to proceed to the Takeoff procedure down bellow.
  7. CAUTION: Do not throttle up the engine while Pre-rotate switch is "ON". Torque moments might cause the Autogyro to crash while on the ground. 
Pre-Rotate is NOT engaged

Pre-Rotate is engaged and rotation is ~160 RPM


  1. Pre-rotate switch to "OFF". Do not wait too much after switching it to off so it won't slow down too much.
  2. Release the Brakes and apply full power for Takeoff.
  3. Pull the stick as you start running and gently keep the Takeoff run straight using the Rudder (it is very effective so be gentle).
  4. Expect liftoff at ~20-30 knots.
  5. As the Autogyro is airborne, push the stick forward and let the Autogyro to gain airspeed before starting a climb or other maneuvers. 
  1. Pretty much like a conventional fixed-wing aircraft.
  2. Use rudder for coordinated turns.
  3. Use rudder for tight maneuvers.
  4. If you fly slow - make sure you gain speed before attempting to do "something stupid" ;)
  5. Flight envelope: 45 knots is a good airspeed for cruise.
  1. Fly the Autogyro to the desired landing area.
  2. Enter a final leg, maintain reasonable airspeed and sink rate (not below 20 knots and not above 40). Final approaches may be steep enough to overcome obstacles.
  3. Just as you a low enough (20 feet or so), pull the stick gently for slowing down. Judge for zero airspeed just before touching down. This "exercise" requires some practice, but it is very easy and controllable situation.
Short videos

Newer video:

(this video was edited during development, so there are new features now such as the 3D instrument panel etc...):


Monday, March 14, 2016


(for X-Plane 10.45+)

Scroll down to read information and flying tips for X-Plane

Main project features:
  • Highly detailed, animated 3D model.
  • High-Res 4096x4096 textures, Ambient occlusion, Specular and Normal mapping. 
  • Great handling and flying characteristics, cooool Knife-Edge capability :)
  • Great sounds.

"Gee Bees" were some of the most successful airplanes of the Golden Age of air-racing during the 20s and 30s. Using gigantic engines they were build for speed.

The R3 is an upgraded racing version of the Gee Bee types R1 and R2, but it exists only on the drawing boards. This aircraft is alive mostly in the Radio Control model airplanes community, having it's designs flying from control-line to giant scale models.

I have decided to bring the R3 concept to full-size in X-Plane flight simulator. This project will include sport aircraft and variations, inspired by the R3 design. 

The first variation in this package is the reciprocating sport plane, the VBR-3.

Here are some specifications:

Crew: 1
Length: 32 ft 
Wingspan: 36 ft  
Height: 12 ft  
Empty weight: 1930 lbs
Max. takeoff weight: 3350 lbs
Powerplant:  830 hp
Maximum speed: 300 knots 
Stall speed: 65 knots

Flying tips for X-Plane:

  • Use 65-95 degrees Field-Of-View setting (in 'rendering options').
  • Don't forget to release brakes before taxiing.
  • Its a fixed propeller, no Flaps aircraft, just hop in and you are ready to Rock n Roll!
  • Keep your speed on final, touchdown below 80 knots.
  • Knife Edges, inverted loops and inverted flight are mostly recommended !!!

Please read this COPYRIGHT and DISCLAIMER information before downloading and/or using files from VSKYLABS.COM

Tuesday, January 12, 2016

VSKYLABS Powered Hang Glider project

The VSKYLABS powered Hang Glider project for X-Plane
This package is going to feature lot's of versions and variations of the motored hang glider ultralight aircraft, including a stripped down buggy-trike, pulse-jet powered trikes, rigid wing futuristic concepts an more. First aircraft in the package is the 'Trike S-1'.

VSKYLABS 'Trike S-1' version 2016-003 (X-Plane 10.45+)
VSKYLABS 'Trike-Buggy S-2' version 2016-003 (X-Plane 10.45+)

Buy now

Current version: 2016-003 (3th April 2016)
-Flight model fix: no unwanted yaw moment near stall.
Added a toggle switch for pilot figure appearance 
The VSKYLABS 'Trike S-1'
The VSKYLABS 'Trike-Buggy S-2'

What is an ultralight trike aircraft?
An ultralight trike aircraft, also known as a flex-wing trike, weight-shift-control aircraft, microlight trike, deltatrike or motorized deltaplane, is a type of powered hang glider using a high-performance Rogallo wing coupled to a propeller-driven three-wheeled undercarriage. While many powered aircraft have three-wheeled landing gear, the term "trike" refers specifically to the form of aircraft described above.

Flight control in a trike is made by weight-shifting; the undercarriage structure is connected to the wing at a hinge-point, and the wing can be tilted in both X and Y axes. While on the ground (takeoff for example), pushing the wing control bar raises the angle of attack of the wing and lift is produced. As the aircraft is airborne, moving the control bar of the wing causes the undercarriage to swift both sideways or back and forth, and a weight-shifting control is achieved.

Performance (VSKYLABS 'Trike S-1'):
  • Climb Rate @ Gross weight: ~850 fpm.
  • Stall Speed @ Gross weight: ~40 knots.
  • Cruise speed: 55-65 knots.
  • VNE: 80 knots.
  • Descent Rate @ Gross weight / Idle: ~500 fpm @ 44 knots.
  • Fuel Capacity: 12 Gallon.
  • Fuel Burn @ Cruise speed: ~2 Gal/Hr.
Performance (VSKYLABS 'Buggy-Trike S-2'):
The characteristics of the pulse-jet thrust is quite interesting in such of an ultralight aircraft, when comparing it to a standard propeller-driven engine.
Take off run is a little longer, maximum airspeed is much higher (you don't cruise at more than 60% power!), and climb rate is much higher.
  • It is a completely experimental aircraft.
  • Climb Rate @ Gross weight: >850 fpm.
  • Stall Speed @ Gross weight: <40 knots.
  • Cruise speed: 55-65 knots.
  • VNE: 80 knots.
  • Descent Rate @ Gross weight / Idle: ~500 fpm @ 44 knots.
  • Fuel Capacity: Propane Tank (~60 lbs).
  • Fuel Burn @ Cruise speed: N/A

Flight model important notes for X-Plane (both models):
  • The 'Trike S-1' is trimmed for 45-50 knots. Adding power will affect the pitch attitude slightly and produce a nose-down moment. I made this setup due to some limitations of X-Plane's flight model which concerns hang-gliders physics; in real life - the engine's thrust vector is in straight line with the CG location, and change of power settings doesn't affect the aircraft's attitude. In the 'Trike S-1' flight model, the vertical CG location is lowered, as much as possible, to eliminate "nosing-up" when tilting the wing upwards, while on the ground (X-Plane is shifting the weight backwards while on the ground...this doesn't occur in real life, when the weight is actually shifting while airborne). So...when changing the engine's setting from full power to idle, expect a slightly nose-up moment. Once the power setting is settled down to a ~50 knots flight, minimum pressure on the control bar will be required.
  • Because the trike is trimmed to 45-50 knots, almost no pressure at all will be required on final approach, and when the engine is on Idle, it will keep gliding in a good attitude, near the stall speed, right until touchdown. This is a very fun exercise when landing the trike.
  • Do not exceed a 60 degree turn, nor abrupt movements of the control bar on steep turns. The lateral stability of the trike is limited, and it could snap out of the turn.
  • When flying the Trike-Buggy S-2: Take off with 100% power. Once airborne, set it to ~60%.
How to fly the VSKYLABS 'Trike S-1' and the 'Buggy-Trike S-2' in X-Plane:
  • Point of View setup: 
    • Set the lateral field of view to 95 degrees.
    • You can do this from the 'Rendering options' menu in X-Plane.
    • You can toggle between 95 and 105 degrees by clicking on the screen of the smartphone which is in front.
  • Pilot Toggle Switch: Located in the cockpit panel. Push to toggle the pilot appearance in the cockpit (for not seeing the pilot object).
  • Joystick and controls setup: You can fly the trike with regular fixed wing aircraft joystick setting (pull the stick to pitch up, push the stick to pitch down). For more realistic training, joystick pitch axis should be inverted (joystick setting menu) to simulate the real style flying of the trike which is push the control bar of the wing to tilt it up and by that getting the nose up (push for up). When moving the control bar of the wing, the weight of the undercarriage is shifting also and once airborne it is the main control input for the trike.
  • How to fly a hang glider trike? I will write a brief manual soon. Until then, you can go to this YouTube links and get yourself familiar with this beautiful flying machine. It is from the channel of Paul Hamilton (I don't know him in person but his videos are great):
Here are some videos of the VSKYLABS Trikes:

Stay tuned for updates

Friday, November 27, 2015

VSKYLABS F-19 Stealth Fighter

Testors/Italeri version of the
F-19 STEALTH FIGHTER V2015-003.1
** VSKYLABS development of the F-19 is approved by Italeri **
This package contains files with virtual content for usage with X-Plane flight simulator.
No physical model included.



In General:
The VSKYLABS F-19 Stealth Fighter aircraft is designed around the Testors/Italeri's concept, which was based on research and information that was available back in the 80's through the media and public sources. The assumptions back then were that the stealth fighter was a sub-sonic aircraft, small, light and with dimensions which made it air-transportable in a Lockheed C-5A Galaxy. It was assumed also to have only internal fuel tanks, and used the same General Electric F404 engines as the F-18 Hornet but without afterburners. This is the most comprehensive project of VSKYLABS, and it features a fully operational aircraft and systems.

The VSKYLABS F-19 Stealth Fighter is an upgraded version of the 80's concept. The upgrade is mostly done with a replacement of the old F404 engines with a newer, more powerful F414-GE-400 engines.

Flight Dynamics Model:
This is the core of the project: Is the F-19 design plausible, considering its design and mission estimations back in the 80's? X-Plane's Flight Dynamics Model is based on the physical dimensions and structure of the aircraft, and this was a really great opportunity to test the design and see if it meets its estimations regarding it's range of operation, lift to drag ratio and power to weight ratio, service ceiling, maximum speed, low speed characteristics, payload management, center of gravity behavior and the performance of the GE F404 engines when propelling it's platform.

The Testors/Italeri F-19 Stealth Fighter design history:
summary from an article, published in the Los Angeles Times Magazine, by Paul Ciotti:

In the spring of 1985, the Testors model kit company introduced it's model of the super-secret F-19 stealth fighter, and immediately created an international sensation. An irate congressman held up the kit during testimony from the chairman of Lockheed and demanded to know how a toy company was able to sell plastic models of a plane that members of Congress weren't allowed to see.

The man who came up with the model, Testors plane designer and airplane buff John Andrews, claimed it to be a result of sound engineering and common sense. Because Andrews had learned from public sources that the stealth fighter used the same General Electric F404 engines as the F-18 Hornet but without afterburners, he knew the plane was subsonic, which was no surprise. Figuring out the size of the stealth fighter was less difficult than one would suppose. "We knew that it was air-transportable in a C-5 (the Lockheed C-5A Galaxy)," Andrews says, which meant the plane had to be small, light and not burdened with external fuel tanks. "You wanted to be able to roll it out of the C-5 and fly away."

Operating on the assumption that the plane, like the C-5, had to be able to take off from unpaved runways gave Andrews a wheel tread the width of the main landing gear of 15 1/2 feet. That and the fact that the plane had to have internal fuel tanks dictated a wingspan of 24 feet. Because the cargo bay doors on the C-5 are only 18 to 19 feet wide, Andrews knew that the stealth had to have folding wing tips. The size and weight of the engines determined the center of gravity, which in turn determined the location of the forward landing gear.

For weaponry, he gave the stealth the same AGM-65 Maverick air-to-ground laser-guided missiles used by the Air Force and Marines but mounted them internally.

To reduce the infrared signature left by exhaust, Andrews says, he added flush-mounted air intakes for adding bypass air to the exhaust and a rectangular nozzle for scattering engine gases.

In deciding on the model's basic shape, Andrews had a lot to go on. Twenty-five years earlier, Lockheed had built the SR-71 high-altitude reconnaissance plane with its classic sharp-edged, wedge-shaped cross section ("a very stealthy plane," Andrews says). He had also seen the CIA's Mach 3.5 D-21 photo reconnaissance drone in an aircraft "boneyard" outside Tucson. Andrews says he combined the primary features of these pre-stealth aircraft with what he already knew, then took the design "to the ultimate."

Please read this COPYRIGHT and DISCLAIMER information before downloading and/or using files from VSKYLABS.COM

VSKYLABS F-19 Features List

VSKYLABS F-19 Stealth Fighter Features List (updated to 21/12/15):
  • General Design:
    • Detailed air frame based on the authentic Testors/Italeri design.
    • VSKYLABS development of the F-19 is approved by Italeri.
  • Flight Controls and Air frame:
    • Each wing consists differential spoilers for roll control.
    • Single, central elevator is located behind the engines exhaust nozzles, and serves also as "thrust deflector", thus increase pitch authority control at full power.
    • Fixed Canards are located in front of the engines intakes. The Canards improves pitch-trim loads and also straighten the intake airflow.
    • Dual speed brakes are biased to both rudders.
    • Control system is powered by dual, engine driven Hydraulic systems, backed up by automatic, manual control system mechanism.
    • 3 x internal weapon bays for internal armament.
    • Engine intakes re-designed into a plausible structure to for the F414-GE-400 engine specification and intake required surface/volume.
  • Landing and Arresting Gear:
    • Landing gears: The F-19 is equipped with an aircraft carrier operational landing gears system. Main and nose gears are similar to the F-18 heavy duty landing gears mechanism. The detailed landing gears are fully animated.
    • Tail hook.
    • Braking chute.
  • Cockpit and Avionics:
    • Two versions of the aircraft: Caged canopy, and bubble-type canopy.
    • The bubble-type canopy aircraft features a 3D HUD.
    • By concept, as a single seat attack fighter, the cockpit is similar to the F-18/E cockpit.
    • 3 x main MFD's for map/tactical/nav aids/artificial horizon and flight data displays. Heading bug, HSI needle, display modes, map zoom in/out are all controllable through click buttons of the MFD's.
    • 1 x ECAM screen for engine data, system damage and fuel management information.
    • 1 x screen for X-Plane's pop-up GPS system.
    • Electric panel: Generators, Battery, Inverters.
    • ECS (environmental control system): Pressurization (cabin press/ram/dump), Anti Ice, Bleed Air.
    • INTR LT panel: consoles, flood lights.
    • EXT LT panel: Nav, Strobe.
    • FUEL panel: fuel management, fuel transfer, fuel dump. shutoff.
    • Autopilot operations with altitude, heading, attitude, terrain following modes.
    • Annunciator panels.
    • Engine Fire extinguishers.
    • Stick, throttles, landing gears, tail hook, parking brakes.
    • All switches and displays include detailed information for on-screen instruments explanation (feature you can to easily enable/disable in X-Plane).

  • Armament/Weapon systems:
    • Internal weapons selector:  2 x AIM-120 AMRAAM missiles, 1 x Long Range Strategic AGM missile (classified).
    • Defensive Flare/Chaff.
    • Parachute flares.
    • Reconnaissance Camera (View Finder) with dual tilt and field of view modes (horizontal/vertical, wide/narrow) and night vision capability. 
    • Night Vision switch for all views.
    • HUD display (the F-19 is not equipped with a HUD system, but there is an option to use HUD displays).

  • Power Plant:
    • 2 × General Electric F414-GE-400 turbofans.
    • Dry thrust: 13,000 lbf (62.3 kN) each (no afterburner).
  • Interactivity
    • The MFD left/right screens are clickable for easy head glancing left/right; it's a toggle click mechanism so the second click gets you back on center-line view.
    • The Middle MFD screen is clickable also, for fast changing of the field of view. It's a toggle mechanism also and you can switch easily between 65 to 95 degrees.
    • On screen explanations for each operational switch in the cockpit.
  • Sounds:
    • Custom sounds, Layered sounds.
    • Custom warning sounds for defensive missile launch, pull-up, warning, engine fire, high angle of attack, electronic radar alt readouts and more.
  • Textures:
    • 4096*4096 textures layout.

Thursday, November 26, 2015

F-19 Aircraft Technical Data

VSKYLABS F-19 Stealth Fighter Technical Data and Instructions

  • Role: Stealth strike fighter
  • Crew: One
  • Wing Span: 31'8"
  • Overall Length: 59'0"
  • Overall Height: 13'2"
  • Mission Weight at Takeoff: 46,000lbs
  • Engine(s): 2 × General Electric F414-GE-400 turbofans, dry thrust: 13,000 lbf (62.3 kN) each (no afterburners)
  • Range: 520 miles
  • Ceiling: 50,000'
  • Maximum Speed in level flight at 0': Mach 0.95
  • Maximum Speed in level flight at 36,000': Mach 1.1
  • Armament: Three internal weapon bays carrying 2 x AIM-120 AMRAAM's, 1 x AGM-N1 (classified).

The F-19 flying and handling characteristics:

Wing configuration:
Due to its long chines, ended backwards with an "outer" wing portions (as the wings themselves), the F-19 wing configuration is comparable with the cranked arrow wing concept (which was introduced into the F-16 design as a logical choice to substantially improve range, payloads and performance across all mission areas). This wing configuration retains the advantages of the Delta-wing for high speed flight, while overcoming it's disatvantages in excessive bleed rate and stability by having the outer wing portions at a reduced sweep angle. It also retains excellent low speed characteristics and minimizes trim-drag penalties common to tailless Delta wings: 
  • The increased wing and fuselage volume allows an internal fuel increase which greatly increase range and provides extensive weapons carriage possibilities.
  • This configuration increases skin friction drag but reduces wave, interference and trim drag for overall Net decrease.
  • Higher penetration speeds.
  • Reduced signature.
  • Improved flying qualities - stable at all conditions and loadings.
  • "Good ride" quality.
  • Lower radar signature (by 50% due to shape).
The F-19 is powered by two non-afterburning engines, having a thrust to weight ratio of less than one. In addition, the aircraft's low aspect ratio Delta wing configuration produces high Drag when maneuvering in a high angle-of-attack attitudes ("high Alpha"). This combination is causing the F-19 aircraft to bleed airspeed while maneuvering, and loose it's energy rapidly (kinetic potential). The low thrust to weight ratio also limits its ability to gather back its energy while maneuvering.This factor is causing the F-19 to be very vulnerable behind enemy lines, and great attention must be invested by the pilot when flying the aircraft and managing it's energy. Remember: Speed is energy. Energy helps you get in and out of battle.

The F-19 is very vulnerable once engaging into a close range dogfight

The VSKYLABS F-19 Stealth Fighter armament:

The VSKYLABS F-19 Stealth Fighter's primary mission is to penetrate deep into the designated target area, launch it's medium-range air to surface tactical nuclear missile, and head back to base, undetected. The F-19 carries 2 x AIM-120 AMRAAM for self defense or Fighter-Sweep objectives.

The AIM-120 Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile, or AMRAAM, is a modern beyond-visual-range air-to-air missile, capable of all-weather day-and-night operations. It employing active transmit-receive radar guidance and it is a fire-and-forget upgrade to the previous generation Sparrow missiles. When an AMRAAM missile is being launched, NATO pilots use the brevity code "Fox Three".
  • Type: Medium-range, active radar homing air-to-air missile.
  • Place of originUnited States.
  • Specifications:
    • Weight 335 pounds (152 kg)
    • Length 12 feet (3.7 m)
    • Diameter 7 inches (180 mm)
    • WarheadHigh explosive blast-fragmentation (40-50 pounds)
    • Detonation mechanism: Active RADAR Target Detection Device (TDD)
    • Engine: Solid-fuel rocket motor
    • Wingspan20.7 inches (530 mm)
    • Operational range: 
      • AIM-120A/B: 55–75 km (30–40 nmi)
      • AIM-120C-5: >105 km (>57 nmi)
      • AIM-120D (C-8): >180 km (>97 nmi)
    • SpeedMach 4 (4,900 km/h; 3,045 mph; 1.3612 km/s)
    • Guidance system: inertial guidance, terminal active radar homing
The AGM-N1
Medium range air to surface missile, carrying a tactical nuclear warhead (classified).

Firing one of its two AIM-120 AMRAAM missiles
Launching the AGM-N1(classified)
Considerations when firing missiles: The AGM-N1 Missile drop up to 300' from the aircraft when launched, due to it's booster ignition suspension. As a general rule, don't launch the missile at low altitude. It may hit the ground before it can flyaway to the target.

The F-19: General performance characteristics:

Some reference numbers:
  • Takeoff - 35,000 lbs:
    • Rotation: 160 knots.
    • Lift off: 175 knots.
  • Take off - 46,000 lbs:
    • Rotation: 170 knots.
    • Lift off: 185 knots.
  • Lift/Drag ratio: 
    • 4.8 - Normal flight / 300 knots.
    • 3.6 - Near stall.
  • Suggested climb profile to 38,000' / Mach 0.95:
    • Initial climb at 350 knots to 20,000'
    • At 20,000': Accelerate to Mach 0.8
    • Climb at Mach 0.8 to 30,000'
    • Climb at Mach 0.85 to 38,000' and gradually pitch off to reach Mach 0.95 
  • Airspeed Management:
    • Above 28,000': 
      • Do not perform maneuvers below Mach 0.85
    • Below 28,000':
      • Horizontal maneuvers: Combat speed is Mach 0.85 (best turn rate).
    • Low Altitude (below 7000' AGL):
      • Corner speed is Mach 0.85 / 520 knots.
      • Maximum allowable g load factor: 7g
  • Landing:
    • Final: 180-190 knots.
    • Touch down speed: 165 knots.

Front Cockpit Panel - Main Switches
  1. Air to Air / Air to Ground Weapon selector.
  2. Re-arm all weapons.
  3. Fire extinguishers (left/right engines).
  4. Tactical/Navigation map (toggle push on the screen  to move the head to the left side).
  5. Instruments brightens.
  6. Map zoom selector (top to bottom switches, up – see far / down – see close).
  7. HSI needle selector (right/left).
  8. Map mode selector (cyclic).
  9. Heading bug selector (right/left).
  10. Display layers selectors (VOR's, NDB's, TCAS...).
  11. Warning Annunciator panel #1
  12. Flight data and Recon camera MFD (toggle push on the screen to change field-of-view setting 65/95 degrees).
  13. HUD power on.
  14. HUD brightness ratio.
  15. Recon camera on/off switch.
  16. Recon camera tilt/field of view switches.
  17. General navigation screen ( (toggle push on the screen  to move the head to the right side).
  18. Autopilot mode selectors (alt/heading/pitch/terrain follow/wing level).
  19. Autopilot on/off switch.
  20. Braking Chute.
  21. X-Plane's GPS (click on the screen to toggle pop-up).
  22. ECAM MFD.
  23. ECAM display selectors (engine/ fuel management and systems status)

Side Cockpit Panels - Main Switches
  1. Engines shut-off switches (left/right).
  2. Engines start-up switches (left/right).
  3. Fuel Dump switch (on/off).
  4. Fuel transfer switches (both tanks - transfer fuel to TANK NO#).
  5. Ext lights - Navigation and Strobe lights.
  6. Artificial stability: Yaw Damper / Artificial Stabilization.
  7. Landing lights switch.
  8. Oxygen meter.
  9. Parking brakes.
  10. Landing gears handle.
  11. Tail-hook handle.
  12. Annunciator panel #2.
  13. Avionics on/off switch.
  14. Annunciator test button - CLICK AND HOLD.
  15. Electricity panel: generators #1/#2, inverters, battery switches.
  16. Pressurization DUMP switch.
  17. Pitot tube heating switch.
  18. Anti icing systems switch.
  19. Bleed air switch on/off.
  20. Interior panel lights (left/right/center).

Flying tips for X-Plane flight simulator:
  • The aircraft loads up with a 2D HUD display. To switch on the 3D HUD display, you have to turn off the 2D HUD, by using the "HUD power on" toggle switch (no.13 in the front panel map. Scroll up here to see it). This switch toggles between the 3D & 2D HUD. Brightness of the 3D HUD is controlled by the instruments brightness rheostat.
  • Enable X-Plane's "show instrument instruction in the cockpit" (by entering the 'About/Instructions' window in the simulator, and mark/un-mark the check box in the bottom of the window. After you enable it, you can point your mouse to any relevant switch/screen in the cockpit and read useful information about it.
  • For takeoff and landings click on one the MFD's screens to adjust field-of-view and head position to see the runway center line.
  • When landing on regular/long runways and on an aircraft carrier, do not extend the air-brakes on final approach. Extension of the air-brakes result in an additional 1-2 degrees to nose attitude and affects forward visibility in a 3-4 degrees final.
  • When landing on short runways (air strips in the desert), extend the air-brakes on final approach and deploy the braking chute upon touchdown.
  • Important Joystick assignments:
    • Assign the 'Pitch trim up/down' and 'Aileron trim left/right' to your joystick HAT switch.
    • Assign the 'Speed-Brakes extend full/retract full'.
    • Assign the 'Target select up/down'.
    • Assign the 'Deploy flare/chaff'.
    • You can assign the 'Weapon select up/down' or use the A/A / A/G click switches in the cockpit.
    • You can assign the 'Fire all armed selections' or use the space-bar to fire a weapon.
  • Navigation Aids:
    • Click on the lower left screen to pop up X-Plane's GPS.
    • Use the buttons around the left/right MFD's to set the needed zoom, map mode, Nav aids display modes, TCAS, heading bug and HSI needle setting.

The VSKYLABS F-19 Stealth Fighter Autopilot reference guide.

Attached below is a quick guide for the F-19 Autopilot modes of operations.

It is a simple yet very useful Autopilot system with 5 modes of operation.
Note that when a mode is being selected, it is highlighted by a green light, and an additional a green "POWER" light is also turned on.

To turn off the Autopilot, hit the green "Power" light-button, and to reset the Autopilot - hit it again to turn in on.

ALT mode:
Push it to keep a certain flight level. If you pushed it during a climb or a descent, the Autopilot will fly the aircraft so it would stop the climb/descent and get back to the specific altitude in which the ALT button was pressed on.

You will notice that when you selecting the ALT mode, both ALT and WLV modes are selected. This is because when selecting ALT mode during a turn (while climbing or descending), the Autopilot will keep the aircraft banking attitude which was during the ALT mode selection.
HDG mode:
Use this mode to couple the Autopilot with the Heading Bug (the pink heading bug which is visible in both left and right MFD's, and can be changes during flight using the two buttons on the left, lower side of the displays.

You can select this mode once stabilized in a certain altitude on a ALT mode (green light). In this case, the ALT mode will remain active with a green light, while the WLV mode (which turns ON when ALT mode is being selected) will turn of. Reason is that the banking attitude is now coupled with the HDG mode.

If you select HDG mode, while no other mode is being selected, while the aircraft is climbing or descending, the ALT mode will set up in a yellow light, but will not be engaged, while the PTCH mode will be automatically selected to maintain the specific pitch attitude which was during the selection of the HDG mode.

PTCH mode:
Use this mode to keep a desired nose attitude. The Autopilot will set up a fixed nose attitude (bank+pitch), which was during this mode selection.

Note that when selecting the PTCH mode, the ALT mode will turn yellow, indicating that it is armed but not engaged, and the WLV will turn green, indicating that the WLV mode is engaged, as the aircraft will maintain its pitch attitude as well as the wing level attitude.

TERR mode:
This model is for low level flight in a terrain following mode, keeping the aircraft at an avarage height of 200 feet above ground level.
You can engage the TERR mode with the HDG mode, and change the aircraft course with the heading bug, or you could engage only the TERR mode, and fly the aircraft manually. If you chose to fly it manually, keep in mind that you can push the stick and force the aircraft to hit the ground, so, it is recommended to engage the TERR mode, and fly the aircraft only with throttle and roll inputs. As you will roll the aircraft to turn, the Autopilot will add the needed pitch input (using the trim automatically), and will allow very tight/high G turns.

Note that the Autopilot is using the electric trim system for pitch control, and if you stressed out the Autopilot in tight maneuvers or if you have pulled the stick for a long period of time, "fighting" with the TERR mode, you could be surprized by unwanted trim position once you disengage the TERR mode. It is also recommended to to fly over steep terrain this the TERR mode engaged, because it will stress out the Autopilot, and it could not prevent an impact with steep mountain walls ahead of the flight path. This mode is perfect for tartical flight in canyions, while going around terrain obstacles and not "up and down" through the mountains.

Note that when selecting the TERR mode, the WLV mode will turn green and will be engaged also, so the aircraft will try to keep a horizontal bank attitude, as long as there is no stick inputs.

WLV mode:
Use this mode to keep a desired nose attitude. The Autopilot will set up a fixed nose attitude (bank+pitch), which was during this mode selection (similar to the PTCH mode).